The IPSL Climate Model (IPSL-CM) is developed since 1995. No flux corrections at the air-sea interface were used in all these models.

  • The IPSL-CM6 (2016-) will be the next version of the IPSL model and will be a full earth system model.
  • The IPSL-CM5 (2010-) model is the last version of the IPSL model and is a full earth system model. Based on a physical atmosphere-land-ocean-sea ice model, it also includes a representation of the carbon cycle, the stratospheric chemistry and the tropospheric chemistry with aerosols. There are two versions of this model, with two different sets of physical models: the IPSL-CM5A is a direct extension of IPSL-CM4 whereas the IPSL-CM5B has an atmospheric model with very different physical parametrisations. The IPSL-CM5 model participates to the CMIP5 and the PMIP3 projects.

  • IPSL-CM4 (2003-2009) includes the new LMDZ-4 atmospheric model with a Emanuel convective scheme and a new cloud scheme, the ORCHIDEE land surface model, the new ORCA2 oceanic model with the LIM sea-ice model, all these models being coupled with the OASIS coupler. IPSL-CM4 participates to the CMIP3 and PMIP-II projects that give important inputs to the IPCC fourth assessment report (IPCC-AR4). A version of this model, IPSL-CM4-LOOP, also includes the carbon cycle and contributes to the C4MIP project.
  • IPSL-CM3 (2002) includes the new LMDZ atmospheric model, with a Tiedtke scheme for the atmospheric convection, and was used for the first long term 1000-year simulation with the IPSL coupled model.
  • IPSL-CM2 (1998-2001) includes a thermodynamic sea ice model, has been used to analyse the response of the climate to changes in insolation, and participates to the CMIP-2 and PMIP-1 model inter-comparison projects. It was also coupled to a carbon cycle model and has been used to perform the first climate simulations (present and future) with an interactive carbon cycle.
  • IPSL-CM1 (1995-1997) was the first version of the IPSL Climate Model and were mainly used for paleo-climate studies.